July 6, 1885 the vaccine has been successfully used for the first time against rabies, created by Louis Pasteur.To this day, an emergency vaccination after being bitten is the only way of salvation from rabies.
about the danger of infection and precautions, see the interview with the head of the Federal Center for Rabies Control, MD Artem Movsesyantsem.
- There is an opinion that the summer - the most dangerous time of the year in terms of the risk of rabies.Is it so?
- Previously, really spring-summer outbursts.But in recent years about the seasonality of rabies, we are not talking.Trends observed year round.The reason for this - the growing number of stray animals in the city, especially dogs, and a high population of wild animals in the suburban areas.And the problem is equally acute for all Ru
- What is statistics?
-. According to official statistics, the average in Russia, 470-500 thousand people a year are exposed to the bites of wild or domestic animals.More than half of them are anti-rabies vaccination course.In Moscow, there is about 30 thousand. Cases, vaccination against rabies annually.The average figure for the deaths - 15-20 per year.
- What animals are considered the most dangerous in terms of the spread of rabies?
- the main source of the spread of rabies in Russia and around the world are foxes.In recent years, increased the proportion of very raccoon dog, wolf.There are cases of infection by hedgehogs, squirrels, badgers, martens, polecats and other, non-traditional in terms of the spread of rabies, and animals.60 years there were no cases of rabies wild boar - and recently we have registered a case.In general we can say that all warm-blooded animals that inhabit the territory of Russia, could potentially be carriers of the infection.
- something to fear and avoid in the first place, so as not to expose themselves to the risk?
- In the cities need to be careful with stray animals.Do not contact with stray dogs and cats - the likelihood that they are infected, is large enough.And when the man decided to feed a tramp or provoked the dog, resulting in get a bite, very much.
In the country also need to be vigilant.Wild animals are very cautious.They usually try to avoid humans.Therefore, if the territory of the holiday village came a fox, it is a dangerous sign, saying that the animal may be sick.No need to catch an animal or attempt to pet him.On the contrary, we must try to avoid contact.After a wild animal bite can infect humans, and if you do not take measures as soon as possible (which can be difficult away from the city), the situation may be irreversible.
- What if the fact of the bite has occurred?
- The first thing to do - rinse thoroughly with the bite with soap and water and go immediately to the emergency room, where experts will help.
Every bite is dangerous in terms of rabies.Therefore, a person affected by such an unpleasant contact with animals should seek medical advice.Of course, not required in each case vaccination.For example, a dog can bite, which provoked a violent response.This dog lives at home, she took the vaccine, not in contact with other animals - in this case, the doctor will most likely be limited to antiseptic wound treatment, and will not resort to the rabies vaccine.But if we are dealing with a bite of wild or stray animals, then clearly the need for vaccination.
- Notorious 40 shots in the stomach?
- No.40 shots in the distant past.This vaccination is carried out until 1980.It was very hard, with a lot of side effects.Now a new type of concentrated vaccine - is necessary to make a total of 6 injections at intervals.
- How does the human body rabies virus?
- Rabies - a neurotropic virus.He settles in the brain, the central nervous system, it multiplies very rapidly.Without rapid hospitalization infected person dies.
- What are the symptoms?How is the disease?
- In the first stage there are harbingers: infected person abruptly closed, depressed, covered by a sudden anxiety or fear.At the site of the bite appear paresthesia, flushing.2-3 days are shown two main symptoms: excessive salivation and hydrophobia, when a person wants to drink, but the form of water or just when he starts babbling painful convulsions, hysteria.Tellingly, this comes against the backdrop of clear consciousness.Further, these attacks are beginning to become more frequent, and people die.On average, the plague virus until death takes 6-8 days.
- At what stage is still possible to save the man?
- Unfortunately, in the arsenal of the modern world can not afford medicine that could save a person in the clinical stage of the disease.Precursors - this is the beginning of the disease, even at this early stage man is doomed, and the medicine is powerless.100% lethality.Therefore, if a person has been in contact with a wild animal, had been bitten, you should immediately seek medical help and take a course of rabies vaccination - only if there is a chance to save the man.
- How can you monitor the growth of the population in terms of dangerous animal rabies?
- You need to join forces for housing and communal agencies, which should take on the regulation of the population of stray dogs and cats in the cities;veterinary services, conducting vaccination of domestic animals and wild immunization;and the health care system.order to put things very difficult without a qualitative interaction of these three departments.At present cooperation mechanism debugged bad.
In our country, unfortunately, is not given due importance to this issue.We have poor sanitary propaganda.Hence, we are faced with the fact that people underestimate the risk.Do not vaccinate their pets, despite the fact that it is absolutely free procedure, do not seek medical help.
I can cite as an example the recent case: driver knocked down a fox and bring her home, but at home woman bitten by an animal.The medical establishment is not applied.A man was killed.It was annoying because of ignorance on elementary safety rules.
- How to fight rabies in other countries?
- According to WHO, in the past year to combat rabies in the world spent more than $ 1 billion.In most Western countries operate national rabies control program.The island countries introduced tough quarantine on the importation of animals.For example, in Japan it is 180 days quarantine.European states have reached a good stable situation.There, in addition to sanitary standards, it is well established system of population control with the help of game farms - Huntsman on your site each timber knows a fox hole.there are capitation allowance veterinary services, there are numerous volunteer organizations that are looking for pet owners, etc. -
In European countries, the United States is virtually impossible to see on the street a stray dogOur country is far from a level of understanding of the importance of the problem.Very difficult situation in the countries of Southeast Asia.Every year from rabies in the world killed about 55 thousand people
-. As your center of influence in the development of the situation?
- At this stage, our main work - educational activities.We provide advisory and methodological assistance to health authorities by regularly conduct seminars with surgery, traumatology, epidemiologists, infectious disease specialists across the country.
Soon we will get a license for carrying out laboratory tests for the diagnosis of human immunity to the rabies virus.This will define the types of neutralizing bodies in the blood, which runs the course of vaccinations, and promptly make adjustments, if there is any violation in the treatment.We hope that soon we will be able to set up mechanisms for cooperation between all concerned agencies and to reverse the situation.
In conclusion, I want to appeal to readers VitaPortala kindly asked: do not tempt fate.If there is a dangerous situation, you bitten home (even familiar to you) animal or especially if the lesion is derived from a wild animal, without losing any time, please contact the emergency station and pass inspection.
According to statistics, about 1% of the total population of the globe has different colored eyes.This phenomenon is called "heterochromia" and ...
Dermatologists are divided by simple home remedies for acne.Save on expensive drugs using these recipes. 1. Aspirin Salicylic acid, which is...
spinal traction - a medical procedure used in various diseases of the spine.You should know that it is divided into several types, and is not fo...