Pancreatic cancer : early detection and diagnosis

Pancreatic cancer : early detection and diagnosis
Pancreatic cancer is rarely detected in its early stages, so difficult to treat.

Most often patients seek medical help after weeks or even months after the onset of symptoms, which reduces the chances of a successful cure.

Pancreatic cancer is rarely detected in its early stages.At the time of the appearance of any symptoms of cancer diagnosis already usually presents no difficulty.Unfortunately, it is for this reason that pancreatic cancer is difficult to treat, and mortality in this disease is very high.

Of course, the main objectives are to both earlier detection and diagnosis possible.How did this happen?This article will be discussed, primarily adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, which accounts for 95% of cases of cancer of the body.

Pancreatic cancer: Symptoms

symptoms of pancreatic cancer are extremely non-specific, meaning they can meet and at a host of other diseases.These signs include pain in the upper abdomen, usually on the left, which can spread to the back or worn shingles character

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Pain may increase after a meal or in a horizontal position.It is also noted loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, weight loss (sometimes quite substantial).Maybe jaundice (yellow staining of the skin and sclera) as a result of compression of the growing tumor and biliary disorders of bile outflow.

Physician search the root cause of all these symptoms is based on the following principles:

  • study of the history of the disease.Doctor scans the patient about the features of the disease, paying special attention to the time of onset of symptoms, the nature and location of the pain, the presence of pancreatic diseases (including cancer) in the family, smoking and so on.
  • holds an objective examination of the patient during which the doctor can feel (palpate) through the anterior abdominal wall of a painful tumor formation (for large size of the tumor).Also pay attention to the color of the skin and sclera, weight loss.
  • Laboratory tests show a violation of the outflow of bile and other abnormalities

Instrumental methods of diagnosis of pancreatic

cancer Based on the physical examination and the results of laboratory examination the doctor may suggest one of the instrumental methods that show the structure of the pancreas and the tumor site:

  • Computed tomography (CT) device called scanner using X-ray does a lot of pictures that will later using the computer form the whole image of the abdominal organs.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is performed using electromagnetic waves, which create detailed images of internal organs, such as pancreas, liver and gall bladder.
  • ultrasonography (US) is performed using secure sound waves that bounce off the walls of the internal organs, creating on-screen display of the image
  • Positron Emission Tomography (PET) study carried out after intravenous injection of radioisotope (radioactive glucose), which is absorbedcancer cells.PET scan helps determine the extent of the spread (metastasis) of cancer.

biopsy

If Methods instrumental examination revealed pancreatic some education, the diagnosis of cancer is likely, but not yet final.Only biopsy (from fence body tissue sample, followed by examination under a microscope) can confirm the diagnosis of cancer.There are several types of biopsy:

  • Percutaneous biopsy (sometimes called fine-needle aspiration biopsy) under visual control (usually ultrasound device) surgeon inserts a needle into the formation, capturing part of the tumor tissue.
  • Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): through the mouth into the duodenum 12 is introduced endoscope (a thin, flexible tube with a camera on the end).Then, biliary tract and pancreatic ducts are filled with contrast medium through it, and performed an X-ray.With the help of an endoscope is taken as a tissue sample.
  • Endoscopic ultrasound is performed like ERCP endoscope is supplied to the pancreas, and its ultrasonic sensor detects the position of the tumor.The biopsy is carried out using a fine needle, located at the end of the endoscope.
  • laparoscopy - a surgical procedure that is performed through a small incision in the abdominal wall.With this method the surgeon can not just take a sample of tissue, but also to examine the abdominal cavity from the inside for the spread of the tumor.However, compared with other procedures, laparoscopy is more dangerous.

If pancreatic cancer seems very likely, and the tumor can be removed surgically, the doctor may recommend surgery without prior biopsy.

Researchers are constantly looking for new methods for early detection of pancreatic cancer.These include a blood test for cancer markers, ie the biochemical parameters which indicate the presence of malignancy.Such markers carcinoembryonic relates (or carcinoembryonic) antigen and a cancer antigen CA19-9, which level in pancreatic cancer increases.

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