bronchial asthma (BA) includes external (exogenous) and native (endogenous) factors.External etiologic (causative) factors leading to immune damage to the bronchi and the subsequent development of allergic inflammation are: household allergens (house dust, insects isolation, animal dander, feathers of birds);pollen (grasses, flowering shrubs, trees);fungal spores (mold);food products (honey, nuts, citrus fruits, beans, sometimes crabs, fish, cow's milk, eggs, cereals, medicines (antibiotics, enzymes). synthetic organic materials
External factors are the cause of most cases of asthma Internal factors are.viruses and bacteria, intestinal parasites, nervous stress. Exacerbation of both external and internal asthma may be caused by inhalation of irritant fumes and gases, a viral respiratory infection, nervous stress, climatic factors, exercise. Often in the development and exacerbation of asthma important roleplaying respiratory diseases:. sinusitis, rhinitis, pharyngitis, bronchitis, pneumonia,
Differential diagnosis of bronchial asthma spelled out in the standards of the steps of treatment and is binding.physicians should consider when symptoms diagnosis:. a).Typical complaints, such as a long persistent cough, shortness of breath, b).Inherent symptoms forced position, shortness of breath with difficulty exhaling, c).Collection of allergic anamnesis (history), g).Conducted clinical examinations (for the presence of eosinophils in sputum and blood, to raise specific immunoglobulin E, the results of allergy tests), etc.).A study of respiratory function.It is often possible to make a diagnosis of asthma on clinical grounds, but standards require implementation of all diagnostic tests for legitimate diagnosis.
atopic asthma requires a "atopy", ie defects in chromosome regions that violate the reactivity of the organism, increasing the production of immunoglobulin E and breaking the speed of response to the adrenergic neurotransmitters.Atopic production of IgE is inherited.Atopic asthma usually takes persistent course and progresses rapidly, turning into a more serious stage.
As the severity of asthma, doctors divide into four stages.Mild intermittent asthma is characterized by occasional attacks that can take place without drugs.
mild persistent asthma requires the use of bronchodilator drugs, but the attacks are fast.They occur 1-3 times a month, almost always during the day and rarely at night.
Bronchial asthma is characterized by moderately severe persistent attacks more often than 1 time per week, and remission (complete absence of attacks) is usually not more than three months.The main symptom of asthma of moderate severity is the appearance of night attacks, which do not take place without the use of drugs.Between attacks patients cough usually persists.In the case of steady-state treatment is prescribed, the appropriate preceding, lighter stage (stage of disease).
In bronchial asthma heavy currents required the use of hormonal medication and emergency treatment in hospital.In this form of the disease is very frequent seizures, severe shortness of breath, which does not allow the patient to sleep at night.Short periods without attacks, usually not more than a month.Exercise tolerance reduced sharply.Severe asthma leads to irreversible changes in the bronchi and lungs, which entails serious and dangerous complications: respiratory and heart failure, pulmonary emphysema.The duration of each individual stage can last from several months to several years.The good news is that with proper and adequate treatment, patients may feel comfortable, despite the diagnosis of severe asthma recorded in the card.
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