abstinence syndrome or withdrawal syndrome is a complex neurological, somatic and psychopathological disorders arising as a result of a sharp discontinuation (withdrawal) or decrease the dose of psychoactive substances (alcohol, drugs).
Start, duration and severity of withdrawal symptoms depends on the individual characteristics of the patient, the type of substance used, duration of use and dose, adopted prior to the cancellation.
When the first signs of alcohol withdrawal is usually seen 5-10 hours.The duration of the syndrome may vary from several hours to several days.
from patients complaints on the following symptoms:
During the medical examination have high blood pressure, coated tongue, disturbances in the cardiovascular system (tachycardia, arrhythmia, blood pressure fluctuations), often a pronounced dehydration.
Severe violations occur in the patient's disorientation in place and time, a significant violation of coordination, lack of eye contact, urination disorders.
In severe cases, alcohol withdrawal and alcohol psychosis (delirium) may develop during somatic weakened body.In this case the patient may be auditory and visual hallucinations, sometimes have seizures, manifested through paranoid delusions hallucinations.Expect the beginning of delirium can be through 48-96 hours after the last use of alcohol.
first signs of withdrawal symptoms in drug addicts are usually similar to symptoms of acute respiratory disease (fever, runny nose, cough, fever).Some time later appear nausea, vomiting, tremors, painful muscle spasms in the body, headache, increased sweating, blurred cardio-vascular tone.
following mental disorders may occur:
desire to get the drug takes precedence over all other demands.
Therapy withdrawal syndrome is assigned individually, taking into account the history and characteristics of the patient, as well as time, dose and type of substance.
When moderate to severe withdrawal treatment is carried out under the supervision of the psychiatrist in the hospital where the ability to quickly adjust therapy and prompt action in order to avoid serious consequences, including death.
General recommendations for removing mild withdrawal syndrome are to conduct infusion therapy, suppression of somatic-vegetative, neurological and psychopathological symptoms.
appointed for this purpose painkillers, drugs to maintain cardiac activity.Infusion therapy to correct fluid and electrolyte disturbances (dehydration) is performed under the control of diuresis.
the treatment of withdrawal symptoms in all patients even in the absence of beriberi is assigned vitamin to improve the metabolism and the nervous system.It uses water-soluble preparations containing vitamins C, K and group B. According to the testimony used drugs with minerals (potassium, magnesium, phosphate).
decision to hold anticonvulsant therapy taken physician taking into account the severity of withdrawal symptoms and medical history of the patient.Appropriate medication prescribed for the availability or explicit risk of seizures.Sedative therapy is used to suppress severe symptoms, most commonly used in this case benzodiazepine drugs.
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