Hepatitis D

Hepatitis D
in the world there are so many varieties of viruses that cause fulminant hepatitis and marked by different letters.One such virus is hepatitis D.

most common are hepatitis B and C, but this does not mean that other viruses do not affect the overall structure of the sick people in the world.

Viral Hepatitis D - is an infectious disease caused by a virus and develop only in individuals infected before or simultaneously with hepatitis B. There are several genotypes of hepatitis B virus the D, three of which are highlighted.For Europe and North America is characterized by a genotype I, who more often causes liver cancer and cirrhosis.

Special hepatitis D

What makes hepatitis B virus D?Why do they suffer from only people infected with hepatitis B?The answer lies in the structure of the virus particle, which is not a full virus and refers to viruses of the satellite.

Viruses satellites can not reproduce without a host of the virus, providing for this purpose its outer shell.Hepatitis D virus uses for

these purposes envelope of hepatitis B virus, which facilitates the penetration of the satellite-virus in liver cells and further reproduction.

Thus, there are two forms of hepatitis D: simultaneously with hepatitis B (co-infection) and Hepatitis D on the background of previous infection by the hepatitis B virus (superinfection).

Epidemiology It is estimated that more than 5% of carriers are infected with hepatitis B and hepatitis D. The highest incidence observed among drug users.

clinical picture

In the case of co-infection the overall picture of the disease first resembles the development of hepatitis B. During the period anicteric nothing to indicate the presence of another virus.

The disease manifests as weakness, fatigue, general ill health, joint pain, but at the end of the first week of the health of patients deteriorates.Against the background of a typical period of jaundice (skin coloration, mucous membranes, itchy skin), severe symptoms appear.Patients concerned about the lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, headaches, insomnia.These are symptoms of a massive reproduction of hepatitis D.

Despite the severity of the acute period, long-term prognosis is usually favorable.Hepatitis D virus superinfection occurs rapidly, abruptly, almost without anicteric period.Lightning fast for superinfection with hepatitis D virus is 25% of the total, which is not typical for any of the other forms of viral hepatitis.

Diagnostics

The key to the diagnosis of viral hepatitis D is a blood test to identify markers of hepatitis (B and D).In the acute phase is important as biochemical analysis of blood (high numbers of indicators markers of liver tissue damage - ALT, AST, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase), and ultrasound of the abdomen (a significant increase in liver).

Treatment In the acute phase of the disease it is important to pay attention to the treatment of hepatitis B, as playing hepatitis D virus is entirely dependent on virus-host.However, forecasts of unfavorable disease.The incidence of chronic hepatocellular injury in the outcome of acute hepatitis D is about 10% when co-infection, and 90% for the development of superinfection with rapidly progressing liver cirrhosis.

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