esophageal atresia : symptoms, causes , treatment

esophageal atresia : symptoms, causes , treatment
esophageal atresia - malformation of fetal development, detectable even in the hospital and require immediate medical care.

esophageal atresia is an abnormal fetal development that occurs on statistics on average once per 3000-3500 newborns.According to experts, in recent years there has been a trend towards an increase in the incidence of esophageal atresia.

esophageal atresia: what is it?

esophageal atresia is a complete or partial absence of the esophagus that occurs in the process tab of the internal organs in utero.This pathology constitutes a serious threat to the life of a newborn and requires immediate medical assistance.

esophageal atresia: forms of the disease

  1. Esophagus consists of two segments blindly ending, the lower of which is very short.This type of pathology is uncommon.
  2. Esophagus consists of two long, blindly ending tube.There is seldom enough.
  3. esophageal pathology combined with tracheoesophageal fistula.The most common type of atresia.

Different variations of this patholog


  • atresia with fistula in the upper part of the trachea;
  • atresia with fistula in the lower part of the trachea;
  • atresia with fistula in both the trachea segments, in this situation, the upper part of the esophagus and is expanded shape of the bag, and the bottom flows directly into the trachea.

esophageal atresia: causes

The most common cause of esophageal atresia are negative effects on the fetus in the first trimester of pregnancy:.. Drugs, alcohol, smoking, etc.

Normally 4-5 weeks of fetal development trachea reportedthe esophagus, then they are separated from each other.If at this stage the impact of negative factors on the fetus, their separation can go wrong, there esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula.

esophageal atresia is often associated with other malformations.

esophageal atresia: symptoms

Typically, symptoms of the disease can be suspected diagnosis in the first days after the birth.The doctor at survey can detect foamy-mucous secretion in the mouth of the newborn, and when listening to the lungs - wheezing, which in severe cases can be accompanied by bouts of breathlessness.

very first feeding leads to vomiting or severe coughing fit.The child may refuse the breast, begin to turn blue and suffocate (if the breast milk through the fistula into the trachea).As a result, it may develop aspiration pneumonia and dehydration.

noteworthy that vomiting in a child with atresia vomit curdled and not have sour smell that proves that milk is simply not reached the stomach.Also characteristic of saliva leaking from his mouth kid.

diagnosis of esophageal atresia

If doctors suspected esophageal atresia in a newborn that require diagnostic studies patency of the esophagus using a special rubber catheter, which is inserted through the nose.If the child has complete atresia, the catheter rests in the "dead end", but not in the presence of a fistula catheter into the stomach and into the trachea.

recommended to confirm the diagnosis perform upper GI endoscopy, X-ray examination and bronchoscopy.

Atresia of the esophagus: treatment

When esophageal atresia requires urgent surgery, the aim of which is to restore patency of the esophagus and its functions, as well as the closure of the fistula into the trachea.

Once a child is diagnosed, "esophageal atresia" normal feeding should be discontinued, otherwise the probability of aspiration pneumonia, which aggravates the underlying disease and reduces the chances of successful treatment. Throughout the treatment the child receives nutrients intravenously.

also need constant suction frothy mucus and saliva from the mouth in order to prevent aspiration and pneumonia development.In the presence of comorbidity assigned symptomatic treatment.

child undergoing surgery for esophageal atresia, a long time should be under regular medical supervision.At the site of the joint can occur constriction may develop gastroesophageal reflux.

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