Gallstone disease : complications , diagnosis, treatment

Gallstone disease (GSD) - a disease in which the stones (calculi) are formed in the gallbladder and bile ducts.

survey in cholelithiasis

  • general analysis of blood and urine;
  • biochemical blood tests, ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, prothrombin index, protein fractions of electrolytes;
  • ultrasound of the abdomen;
  • if necessary - MRI and endoscopic laparoscopy.

Basic principles of treatment

To prevent biliary colic recommended diet №5, excluding fatty, fried and spicy foods, overeating and drinking.It is necessary to split meals 4-6 times per day, and increase of fluid intake.Useful warm mineral water ( "Essentuki" "Borjomi", "Smirnoff" and others.).

laxatives, teas medicinal herbs are recommended for the prevention of constipation.To improve digestion and reduce flatulence prescribe reception digestive enzymes.

During the attack need urgent hospitalization, anesthesia and the introduction of antispasmodics.For the prevention of infectious complications prescribe antibiotics.

Surgical treatment (cholecystectomy) is carried out in a planned manner with frequent attacks, rising decrease liver function, as well as the threat of complications.As a matter of urgency operate in the absence of effect of conservative therapy and developed complications of cholelithiasis.

most frequent complications of gallstone disease

  • blockage of the bile ducts and gall bladder neck;
  • development of acute cholecystitis and acute cholangitis;
  • perforation of the gallbladder with peritonitis or fistula formation with neighboring authorities;
  • formation of "disabled" gallbladder, often accompanied by calcification of its wall;
  • development of dropsy of the gallbladder with subsequent suppuration (empyema);
  • development of gallbladder cancer.

During prolonged blockage of the bile duct of the liver is broken, there is anemia, increased bleeding tendency to mucous membranes, marked depletion may develop hepatic coma, followed by death.But at the moment it occurs extremely rarely.As a rule, timely hospitalization and surgical treatment allows to avoid such dangerous complications.

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