team led by Stephanie Vandeveyvere collected and analyzed data on the caloric intake of inhabitants 69 countries for more than 30 years, as well as changes of average body mass index of people in these countries.
It was noted that for the period from 1980 to 2010, the number of people who are overweight has increased in the world with 28.8% to 36.9% for men and from 29.8% to 38% of women.
At the same time there was an increase the energy value of food consumed by people in many countries.In particular, body weight and calorie intake increased during the study period in 54 countries out of 69 - is 81% of all surveyed countries.
Data analysis led to the conclusion that the increase in caloric intake -
«We know that over the decades, other factors such as urbanization, depending on the vehicle and sedentary work, which also contribute to the global obesity epidemic - Vandeveyvere said.- However, our research shows that the availability of excess calories is probably a determining factor in the increased consumption of calories and can easily explain the increased weight gain observed in most countries. "
One burger and potato - it is 1000 kcal, which consist mainly of harmful saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, and "fast" carbohydrates.They provide energy, but do not provide essential nutrients.(For comparison: in a salad with a spoon of vegetable oil about 250 calories, and they contain useful unsaturated fats, fiber, vitamins and minerals needed by the body.)
reason for the intensive spread of obesity - sverhobrabotannye food as the main source of calories.It's fast food, prepared food, cookies and chocolate bars, crisps, buns.They are pleasant to the taste, accessible, inexpensive, widely advertised and consumption became the norm for many in today's world.
This applies to the food in the restaurant, according to a recent study by American scientists.Only food prepared at home, can fully meet the needs of the organism and does not go off-scale for the calories.
Dilemma power lies in the fact that the daily diet should be stowed in the 2000-2500 kcal, and if you eat a lot of "junk" food, something for wholesome food does not have enough space.
So, the most high-calorie and therefore the most popular discussion - is fats.1 gram of fat provides 9 calories.
According to the WHO, about 30% of the daily ration should fall on the fat, while there is clear guidance on exactly which 10% for saturated fat (the milk and dairy products, meat, poultry) and 20% unsaturated (this vegetableoils, fish, nuts), which include such useful compounds as omega-3.It
unsaturated fats that are primarily found in vegetable oils, are useful for the body and serve as prevention of many chronic diseases.
In sverhobrabotannyh foods often contain a lot of saturated fat and bad cholesterol, and trans fats - modified vegetable oils and so-called natural trans fats produced in the milk and meat of animals.They are used for making cakes, sweets, frying and deep-fried.All this leads to a set of "empty" calories and obesity.
Scientists and doctors say about the origin of the double impact of malnutrition.The family that feeds on "junk" food, often looks like this: parents are very thick and thin, immature children.
In adults, excess, empty calories go straight to the waist and can become a cause of chronic diseases, and the children they satisfy hunger, but not conducive to the healthy development of the body, as it does not contain anything nutritious.
And often it is not the fault of the parents: for many families a simple, natural products are not readily available.They prefer to buy cheap semi-finished products, and money for eggs, chicken, vegetables and fruits they do not have.
«regularly biting fast food or" Snickers ", squeezed eaten sweet soda in a glass of which the sugar is almost like the recommended daily allowance, people exceed the number of calories that are spent, and at the same time loses the body needs nutrients: fiber, unsaturated fatty acids omega-3, vitamins and minerals.According to WHO projections, the world expects an unprecedented increase in obesity statistics in 2030, when 73% of men and 63% of women in Europe are obese.It is urgent to take action and reduce the consumption of the main culprits of obesity: trans fats, saturated fats, excess sugar, "- commented Professor of Moscow State University, Head of the National Research Center" Healthy Eating "Oleg Medvedev.
WHO data on Russian state that one in four is obese in Russia.The forecast for the future is optimistic and well within the pan-European trend.
The importance of the study must be received at the highest level, emphasize the scientists.Public bodies whose task is to care for the health of the population are obliged to draw attention to the fact that citizens eat, and to influence the improvement of the diet, reducing it to a high-calorie foods, but low in real nutrients, scientists believe.
For Russia, this means not only the fight against fast food, but also the introduction of the enhanced food labeling, understandable to the public, as the majority of the population receives food increased caloric buying semi-finished products and products with a high degree of recycling in stores.
«The existing labeling does not allow the public not only to make a choice, but simply to read it.National Research Center "Healthy Eating" carried out the population survey, which showed that the majority (two-thirds) want to know what it consists of products, but half of them can not read the writing or to understand what it means, "- said Olegmedvedev.
important step for consumers in Russia will be the introduction of visual labeling, understandable at a glance.Several approaches have been developed in the world.
One - marking "traffic light", based on clear principles "red, yellow, green."The label indicates the composition of the nutrient values for harmful and useful components, marked with color.
If saturated fats and trans fats are marked in green, it means that their levels are acceptable for consumption, if red, then a portion of the product will cost you dear centimeters and shortness of breath.
As international experience shows, the introduction of a mandatory, comprehensive and visible marking not only helps customers, but also affects the producers, forcing them to reformulate foods to labeling does not shine "red" level on the fats and sugars.This is an effective method of influence on the buyer's manufacturer, which is so lacking in Russia.
Scientists have identified the necessary measures to reduce obesity in the world: it is necessary to limit the advertising of unhealthy foods to children, to introduce additional labeling of food products on the front of the packaging, to develop pricing strategies and improving the nutritional quality of foods in schools and other public sector enterprises, to adopt the program,to make healthy food more accessible to all segments of the population.
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