Vaccination against tetanus : a hidden danger

Vaccination against tetanus
When injected into the wound of dirt or damage to the subject of rusty need a vaccination against tetanus - everyone knows that.But in some cases, the vaccine itself can threaten the patient's health.

When you need a vaccination against tetanus

Despite the fact that vaccination against tetanus (especially polyvalent whole-cell vaccines containing killed microbial cells) are poorly tolerated by many patients, it is still shown in any contact with the infection in the wound when creating anaerobic conditions.

is especially true of stab wounds (when accessing oxygen tetanus bacteria take the form of spores and may persist long in the environment even in seawater remain viable for six months).Therefore it is necessary to approach to vaccination against tetanus prudently, taking into account all contraindications.

Contraindications to vaccination against tetanus

final decision on holding vaccinated against tetanus solves doctor or nurse, taking into account all contraindications.

This is not desirable that a vaccination against tetanus was carried out simultaneously with other vaccines, but for health reasons it is still carried out.The most common contraindications to vaccination against tetanus are:

  • expressed polyvalent (multi-factor) allergy or a predisposition to allergic reactions;
  • allergic reaction to the introduction of tetanus vaccine before or intolerance to one of its components (tetanus taxoid, thiomersal, aluminum hydroxide, formaldehyde);
  • acute infectious diseases or chronic stage of a sharp aggravation or decompensation (especially liver and kidney);
  • issue of vaccination during pregnancy for health reasons is decided only in conjunction with an obstetrician-gynecologist.

Side effects and complications during the vaccination against tetanus

most frequent response given multicomponent vaccine.

1. General acute reactions (system): fever, severe allergic reactions (up to a laryngospasm and anaphylactic shock), general weakness.

2. Delayed reaction:

  • skin rash on the type of urticaria with local or general itching, swelling, dermatitis;
  • against the lowered immunity can form an abscess or abscess at the site of vaccination in total external wound healing, Lyell's syndrome (soft tissue necrosis) development of regional lymphadenitis - inflammation of the surrounding, the axillary lymph nodes, sepsis (a generalized form of infection);
  • serum sickness, arthritis, post-vaccination with strong pain and swelling;
  • asthma attack within a few hours after vaccination and the development of asthma in 2-4 weeks after vaccination, hyperventilation (breathing increased, leading to an excessive flow of oxygen in the blood).

3. Fatalities are rare (4 cases per 10 million vaccinations).

4. The reactions of the nervous system:

  • inflammation of the nerve roots and (radiculitis and polyneuritis),
  • temporary paresis and paralysis (usually one-sided, with partial or complete loss of speech), usually on the side of the graft,
  • spasmodic contraction of the peripheral muscles of limbs, accompanied by pain of varying intensity and duration,
  • acute transverse myelitis and encephalomyelitis, accompanied by severe headache (frequent adverse reaction to vaccination).

5. Complications of the cardiovascular system: tachycardia - a tachycardia, arrhythmia, angina (in severe cases - myocardial infarction)

6. Manifestations from the digestive organs when vaccination against tetanus: nausea, excessive salivation and vomiting, diarrhea, flatulence with spastic abdominal pain.

7. With the genitourinary system: a temporary urinary retention (with the development of shock), temporary menstrual disorders, erectile dysfunction is reversible

What further should be considered when carrying out vaccination against tetanus

  • Vaccination against tetanus is not conducive to the formation of immunity against this diseaseas itself an illness.
  • The first thing to prevent getting an infection in the bloodstream, so you need to immediately treat the wound at hand disinfectant (hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate solution), after removing the dirt and foreign objects, and only then make the vaccine.With a stab wound, it may be an additional obkalyvanie wound tetanus drug.

Do I need a re-vaccination against tetanus

The question of whether revaccination doctor decides, as in some cases a frequent re-vaccination (at least injury) can cause significant side reactions, especially in elderly patients.

no consensus on re-vaccination in adults is not - according to the latest data should be carried out not more than once in 5-10 years (abroad believe - once in 25 years).

children vaccination carried out on a specially designed circuit.If necessary (trauma) is introduced specific immunoglobulin.

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