Bronchial asthma : clinical manifestations

Factors sposobstvuyushie the development of asthma, its main clinical manifestations, prognosis.

predisposing factors of asthma.

big role in the development of asthma played always present in the life of the patient predisposing factors are often the triggering mechanism of the immune restructuring with the formation of allergic reactions.These include:

  • presence of chronic foci of infection in the body
  • Frequent colds
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease, goiter
  • worm infestation and parasitic diseases
  • diseases autoimmune character (rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune thyroiditis, collagen and other)
  • high solar insolation and artificial (including poseshenie tanning)
  • Frequent change of climatic zones and work schedules, night shifts.
  • depletes excessive exercise
  • stress, increased mental stress.

often precede the development of asthma other allergic reactions: urticaria, angioedema, etc. plays a major role, and hormonal changes, in which there is increased production of adrenal hormones that

reduce the allergic background of the body..This is most clearly evident in puberty, during pregnancy and lactation.

The development of the peripheral nervous system and affect the tone of attacks of breathlessness and in particular - the vagus nerve, which is why many patients with asthma attacks occur at night, when the predominant tone of the parasympathetic system (including the vagus nerve).

As a result of these many different factors and allergens occurs spasm of bronchial muscles, which leads to a narrowing of the lumen, difficulty exhaling.At the same time enhances the production of viscous bronchial mucus, mucosal edema occurs, it can lead to obstruction (blockage) of the bronchi and the development of emphysema, which eventually becomes constant.

main clinical manifestations of asthma

asthma attack usually occurs suddenly, often - at night.But in some cases may appear, harbingers of the symptoms: chest tightness, and increasing weakness, sore throat, nasal congestion, etc.

During an attack the patient is trying to ease breathing, taking a sitting position with the support arms on the seat, a chair, a bed, thereby maximizing cycling muscles of neck and shoulder department and abdominals.The chest expands, but the breath of a rare and superficial, with labored breath, often accompanied by wheezing.Neck veins swell, his face pale or cyanotic, forehead sweat appear, look somewhat aloof or afraid.By the end of an attack of breathlessness starts to separate viscous mucous sputum.Death usually does not happen during the attack.

Outside attack the health of patients is satisfactory, breathing free, disabled or partially retained limited

of bronchial asthma and forecast

forecast and outcomes of asthma depend on the stage of the development process, the frequency of attacks, as well as for changes in the lungs and the nervous system.Important role played by co-morbidities and overall health.

When long-existing bronchial asthma in patients inevitably develops diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, observed the frequent exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and pneumonia, the formation of pulmonary heart failure, patients with disabling.

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