Carcinoide : revelando la esencia de la enfermedad

Carcinoid : revealing the essence of the disease
Despite the fact that the carcinoids are rare and grow slowly, this type of cancer the patient brings a lot of inconvenience, and must be timely detected and cured.

Most carcinoid tumors grow in the gastrointestinal tract, including the small intestine, appendix, colon and rectum, stomach and pancreas.

They account for about 1/3 of all tumors of the small intestine, of which 50% are malignant.However, despite this and carcinoids can be detected in the lungs, ovaries or any other organs.

Carcinoid: it

Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine.This means that they originate from the cells of the nervous and endocrine systems, and may form hormones and other biologically active substances.When tumor

generates substances such as histamine and serotonin, that gives rise to the so-called carcinoid syndrome.It is characterized by a rush of blood to the skin, stomach cramps and diarrhea.

Like most other types of cancer, carcinoid easiest to treat when detected early.In the early stages of these tumors can be

completely removed by surgery.Most carcinoids grow and spread throughout the body very slowly.However, because these tumors are many, many years of "silent" without causing any symptoms, to detect them in the early stages it is difficult.

Ktsinoid: signs and symptoms

Symptoms of carcinoid tumor often blurry and vague, and are similar to symptoms of many other diseases.In some tumors of the gastrointestinal tract appear such symptoms as abdominal pain or cramps, constipation, bleeding.

carcinoids lungs may lead to the development of respiratory tract infections, pneumonia, chronic cough.

addition, carcinoid tumors may occur two states: carcinoid syndrome and Cushing's syndrome.

The symptoms of carcinoid syndrome include diarrhea, rush of blood to the skin, breathing with wheezing, shortness of breath, abdominal cramps and a feeling of palpitations.When Cushing's syndrome there is weight gain, muscle weakness, thinning of the skin, increased hair growth on the face and body (including women), increased blood sugar levels and high blood pressure.

According to Professor Richard Warner, head for the treatment of carcinoid tumors Foundation (New York, USA), many doctors often do not even think about these tumors.And this is the biggest problem in the diagnosis of carcinoids.Since they are relatively rare, experts simply do not compare the symptoms and possible causes.

Risk factors for the development of carcinoid tumors

Researchers still have not figured out definitively what causes these tumors.However, some risk factors are known precisely, and people are not able to control or change them.

  • genetic syndromes.The risk of development of various tumors including carcinoid, great in patients with so-called syndrome of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN-1).In addition, carcinoids are often formed and in neurofibromatosis type I - a grave hereditary disease with skin lesions and nervous system.
  • Paul.The risk of carcinoid tumors in women slightly higher than men.The reason for this is unknown scientist.
  • Nationality.Men and women blacks are more common carcinoids of the gastrointestinal tract, whereas tumors of the lungs and other organs of the respiratory system are more common in Caucasians.
  • condition of the stomach.In people with reduced gastric acid secretion (hypo- and anatsidnyh state) and the various mucous membrane lesions (inflammation, erosions, ulcers) are more common gastric carcinoids.
  • Smoking.It is proved that in smokers the risk of developing various pulmonary carcinoid tumors above.A recent study conducted in Europe, found that smoking doubles the risk of carcinoids and small intestine.However, these data require further study.

diagnosis of carcinoid tumors

Due to the slow growth of tumors are often detected data to metastasis, and often - and to the development of any symptoms.In many cases they are found during a routine inspection or examination for other diseases.

By its symptoms carcinoids rarely found.If the doctor suspects a carcinoid tumor, it may assign the following survey.

  • Blood tests and urine tests.These simple tests are often the starting point in the diagnosis of carcinoids.They can detect excessive levels of hormones or other substances that are produced by the tumor.
  • visualization of internal organs need to detect the location of carcinoids.Used X-ray, CT and MRI, PET scans.Very useful is the study of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy.In this case, the blood flow is injected a small amount of hormone-like substances, radiolabeled (oktreoskan), which rushes to the carcinoid cells.After a few hours with a special sensor in the body identifies the "hot" centers of accumulation of this compound, which indicate a tumor.
  • Endoscopy.This research, which uses a thin, flexible tube with an ultrasound scanner or camera at the tip, is particularly useful for diagnosis of carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, from the esophagus and the rectum finishing.
  • biopsy.It is a mandatory step in the diagnosis of carcinoids.When a biopsy of the tumor is removed a small piece of tissue that is examined under a microscope.This allows you to determine the exact type of tumor and choose the appropriate treatment.

Carcinoid Forecast

earlier carcinoid detected before it spread to other organs, the higher the chances of a complete cure by surgery.If the tumor has moved beyond its initial position, it may require combination therapy.In this surgical treatment is combined with chemotherapy, radiotherapy or radio frequency ablation, that is, the destruction of the tumor by means of high frequency pulses.

No matter how early the tumor is detected.Most importantly, how quickly treatment is started.Many doctors believe that it is better to wait until there are clear symptoms of the disease.However, it is the wrong tactic.Early aggressive treatment carcinoids provides the best prognosis for the patient's life.

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