4 Rules of cancer diagnostics

4 rules onkodiagnostiki
known early diagnosis of cancer - the path to successful treatment.Every year, nearly half a million patients in Russia are diagnosed with "cancer" - this is the population of a city, such as Astrakhan and Penza.Nevertheless, the knowledge on how should undergo oncological diagnostics is quite vague in most people until they or their loved ones did not affect disease.This is a serious problem, because the time factor in the diagnosis of cancer is very important - the disease can have time to go to a more serious stage.

On the rules of diagnostic readers VitaPortala says Alexey Remez , CEO UNIM service diagnostics of oncological diseases.

first rule onkodiagnostiki - need to be screened, set for your gender and age, tailored to individual needs.Screening is a suite of diagnostic procedures to detect cancer (or disease with a high risk ozlokachestvlivaniya) at that stage, even when there are no symptoms.

What screening measures are now found to be effective:

  • ultrasound of the abdominal cavity an
    d chest X-ray in two projections.The study recommended to do all the groups once a year;
  • periodic gastroscopy and biopsy of the gastric mucosa.This study allows to detect cancer and pre-cancerous changes and take samples to study the entire path of the gastroscope - from the esophagus, stomach and duodenum;
  • colonoscopy.The event aims to identify cancer and pre-cancer of the colon and rectum.Recommended for men and women every 5 years starting at age 40;
  • Liquid Pap smear from the cervix by Pap and HPV testing by PCR at High risk types of the virus (possibly the execution of the same smear).This study is for women, it should be performed once every 3 years, beginning with the sexual debut.It is aimed at protecting women from developing cervical cancer, particularly its heavy forms;
  • mammography for women after reaching 40 years, from 20 to 40 years - ultrasound examination of breast every year.These activities are aimed at the early detection of breast cancer;
  • blood test for prostate-specific antigen (PSA).This analysis must take place annually men over 40 years.If signs of prostatitis TRUS additionally performed.

These studies noted changes in the prostate before they cause inconvenience to the man first.

second rule onkodiagnostiki - the results of the screening diagnosis "cancer" is not assigned.Screening only allows you to select among the population of those who need to pass additional, more detailed studies.

At this point, the doctor prescribes a variety of studies in accordance with the nosology (origin) of the detected tumors.It can be laboratory tests (blood, urine, feces, sputum, and so on. P.), X-ray diagnostics (radiography, fluoroscopy, MRI, CT, PET CT scan), endoscopy (gastroscopy, colonoscopy, etc.).The results of these tests your doctor may suspect the presence of cancer pathology and refer the patient to the Oncology Center.

in oncologic dispensary patient misses an appointment with the oncologist, who by studying the results of previous studies, decides whether the morphological studies.

third rule onkodiagnostiki - diagnosis "cancer" is put on the results of morphological studies.Morphological

cancer research - the study of the tumor tissue at the cellular or molecular level.From the definition it follows that need to carry them out tumor tissue.It is obtained on biopsy - sampling procedure in vivo tumor tissues (as well as on the border of the tumor and healthy tissue).It can be carried out the operation with complete removal of the tumor, and can be performed on an outpatient basis and under local anesthesia.The obtained tumor samples were placed in a special solution of 10% formalin, to preserve all of the cell structure intact and conveyed into the histopathology laboratory.There's a series of operations carried out on the material to secure and keep it for a long time.As a result of these operations is obtained histological paraffin block.This unit then selects the most informative sections are cut on a microtome thin films, and then dyed with special dyes in immunogistosteynere.Dyes may be routine (hematoxylin, eosin) or may be specific antibodies that bind to specific sites on the basis of tumor « antigen - antibody".In the former case it is called a histological study, and in the second - immunohistochemistry.Stained sections sandwiched with glass on both sides, are called histological glass.It will examine them under a microscope, the doctor-pathologist and the diagnosis on the basis of what he saw pictures of their own experience and expertise.Here lies the basis for the next onkodiagnostiki rules.

fourth rule onkodiagnostiki - when setting Cancer diagnosis based on the results of morphological studies are needed to make the revision of the histological glasses.This rule is, unfortunately, beyond the scope of compulsory medical insurance paid for procedures and is at the discretion of each patient and at his expense.Revision of histological glass in expert-level laboratory is the cause of adjustments diagnosis in about 40% cases.This is due, primarily, to the lack of training of medical personnel in the regions.Especially a lot of difficulty with diagnosis occurs in patients with suspected lymphoproliferative diseases, central nervous system tumors, some tumors of soft tissue and bone tumors.This is a very important issue, as the result of morphological research is the basis for the choice of treatment strategy for each individual patient - any errors or inaccuracies that may lead to unnecessary treatment.

In addition, there are remote services oncological diagnostics that allow the patient to get a "second opinion" of the capital pathologist.

Remember that many cancers detected at an early stage and appropriately diagnosed, treated successfully - you need just in time to make an accurate diagnosis.

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