chapter from the book «Great medications: In the struggle for life»
Cradle aspirin and owner of the brand - a German pharmaceutical group Bayer.Aspirin in the form in which we know it, two chemists have created this group - Felix Hoffmann and Arthur Ayhengryun.
As usual, there is a legend.Hoffman's father suffered from rheumatism, experienced pain, could not move.Doctors prescribed it to reduce pain, sodium salicylate.But after taking this medicine he started vomiting.Loving son of a chemical found in the chemical literature data on acetylsalicylic acid, which was synthesized by Charles Gerhardt in 1853 and has a lower acidity.Work Gerhardt remained little known in the scientific world is a
Whatever it was, in the laboratory journal Hoffman was August 10, 1897 says that prolonged heating of a mixture of two parts of salicylic acid and three parts of acetic anhydride provides a very clean salicylic acid in a stable form.This date is considered the birth day of aspirin.October 10, 1897 by F. Hoffmann described the method of producing almost pure acetylsalicylic acid, and its tests have revealed high pharmacological activity.Aspirin was acceptable taste and non-irritating.
new drug gave the name of "aspirin", taking the letter "a" from the word acetyl (acetyl) and part of the "Spirin," from the German word Spirsaure, which in turn comes from the Latin name for meadowsweet (Spiraea ulmaria) - plantscontaining a large amount of salicylic acid.
However, the history of aspirin started much earlier - 4000 years before the rediscovery in the late XIX century in Germany.Egyptian papyri, which date from about 1550 mi years BC.e., mention the use of a decoction of the leaves of the white willow for many diseases.Hippocrates recommended for pain relief and fever sap from the bark of willow trees.The therapeutic effect of willow knew the natives of America - the Indians Cherokee tribe.
Willow - the first source of aspirin.By the middle of the XVIII century, willow bark has been a well-known folk remedy for treating colds.In 1757, English clergyman Edward Stone became interested in extreme bitterness willow bark, similar to the bitterness of quinine, manufactured from the bark of the cinchona tree - a rare and expensive for the treatment of malaria.June 2, 1763, speech to the Royal Society, Stone said he learned to treat fever in patients using the infusion of the bark of white willow (Salix Alba).
By the end of the XVIII century healers all over Europe know that willow bark helps to cope with various types of fever, reduces temperature and relieves pain.
In 1828, Munich University Professor Johannes Buchner managed to get out of willow bark extract in the form of yellow crystals.On behalf of the tree he called Aspirin.Acid doctor 29 new substance salicin.The following year, the French chemist Henri Leroux improved method Buchner.Six years later, a chemist from Berlin, Karl Jacob Lovig allocated salicylic acid from the extract of flowers of meadowsweet, and the last step in this chain has made an Italian chemist, Raffaele Piria.He received salicylic acid laboratory method - oxidation of salicin.The result is a material that has become the basis of aspirin.
At the same time, doctors have noticed that salicin has a beneficial effect on patients suffering from rheumatism.True, he acted negatively on the stomach, was not too strong and also not cheap.Pure salicylic acid was cheaper and more efficient salicin, but damaged the stomach is stronger than he.Salicylic acid and salicin was nasty taste and cause pain in the stomach.Therefore, patients refused to take them.
In 1828, Munich University Professor Johannes Buchner managed to get out of willow bark extract in the form of yellow crystals.On behalf of the tree he called Aspirin.
owner of the brand "Aspirin" Bayer company initially engaged in the production and sale of dyes and then called Farbenfabriken vorm.Friedr.Bayer & amp;Co.The new owner, Carl Rumpf, son of company founder Friedrich Bayer, decided to change the production profile.Instead of aniline dyes he planned to produce medicines and began to invite scientists from universities, so they worked to create medicines.
Then came the company Ayhengryun Arthur and Felix Hoffmann.After the death of Rumpf became CEO of Bayer Professor Carl Duisberg, who began experimenting with a variety of chemicals in the search for new antipyretics.He managed to get phenacetin, which was used until now, in particular in combination with aspirin.
Ayhengryun and Hoffman worked on the improvement of salicin.Duisberg did not believe in their success.But they managed to create a medicine, which talked about as a wonder drug.In 1899, the Bayer company began production of the drug under the name "Aspirin" as an analgesic, antipyretic and analgesic drugs.
Aspirin has become the trade mark of Bayer.Already in 1915, it can be purchased without a prescription.Aspirin was originally sold as a powder, and it quickly caught on.By 1909, a third of all drug sales accounted for US.Aspirin was the constant companion of Enrico Caruso.It is mentioned in the writings of Franz Kafka and Jaroslav Hasek.
In the early XX century, aspirin has been popular in Russia, including at the royal court.Since aspirin is associated episode contributed to strengthening the position of Grigory Rasputin.By this time it was known that aspirin reduces blood clotting (which is why it is used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease), but they were going to treat haemophiliac Tsarevich Alexei.A hemophilia aspirin deadly.Grigory Rasputin has forbidden to give the boy a novelty from Germany, and this saved him.
After the First World War, acetylsalicylic acid continued its triumphant march, finding new applications.During the influenza epidemic in Europe aspirin saved thousands of lives.It was found that the addition of aspirin to the water has a beneficial effect on plant condition.During
century chemical company Bayer, and other investigators have made numerous attempts to study the effect of changes in the structure of the derivatives of salicylic acid in their activity and thus find compounds having superior to aspirin.We investigated the effect of chain length aspirin acetyl group and various substituents on the cycle.Examined various salts of aspirin - calcium, sodium, lithium, and lizinatsetilsalitsilat which are more soluble in water than acetylsalicylic acid itself.
presence of acetyl groups of aspirin - the condition of the pharmaceutical activities.Some of the compounds listed above was introduced into medical practice, and although some drugs have the advantage to aspirin (especially in the treatment of rheumatism), none of them has won such wide popularity.
Already in 1915, it can be purchased without a prescription.Aspirin was originally sold as a powder, and it quickly caught on.
In 1948, an American physician, Lawrence Craven has published the results of his bold experiment.He subscribed to aspirin cores, believing that it will bring them good, although not quite understand its mechanism of action.Indeed, aspirin reduced the risk of heart attack.Nowadays, every fourth person taking aspirin, its use for this purpose.In Britain, even reinterpreted the old saying "An apple a day - and forget about the doctors 'to' One aspirin tablet - and will live without doctors."
In 1952, aspirin was synthesized with a low content of the active substance, intended for children, and in 1969 the drug was included in the kits even astronauts.
aspirin - one of the most common in the world of drugs.Indications for use of its expanded considerably in recent years, come to the fore antithrombotic effect.Aspirin is forced to make life of patients with prosthetic heart valves to prevent thrombus formation in the field of artificial valves, coronary artery bypass surgery for coronary artery disease, for the prevention of recurrent myocardial infarction, patients with transient disorders of cerebral blood circulation for the purpose of prevention of ischemic stroke.
Recently opened new positive qualities of aspirin.It is assumed that it is not only prevents heart attacks, but also reduces the risk of cancer of the esophagus and colon.Published data showing that aspirin may be used to prevent breast cancer and skin.
Bayer company had to fight for their rights to the brand.At first she was a victim of the then German law, does not allow the patenting of drugs and chemicals.These Americans have taken advantage.Germany's defeat in World War I allowed the Allied victory Bayer reject the claim and enjoy not only the formula and process, and even the name of "aspirin".Patent struggle continued for a long time, Bayer won, but not everywhere.For example, the Soviet Union ignored the content of the Germans and aspirin released under the same name.Only in 1999 - perhaps in honor of the centenary of the advent of drug - Russia, too, has recognized copyright Bayer.
right to produce the drug under the name of "aspirin" belongs to Bayer, and other companies produce the same drug under different names: "Aspirin UPSA", "Ask-C", "Plidol-C", "Fortalgin", "Solutsetil", "Aspro C "ACC" Thrombotic ACC "and others.
in 1950, aspirin was included in the Guinness Book of records as the best-selling painkiller.In 1999, marking the centenary of aspirin, pharmaceutical company said the sale of a trillion tablets.
Currently, the Russian offer more than a hundred different painkillers, and almost all of them contain as a main ingredient of aspirin.Its under different names produced by many pharmaceutical companies: "Vertex", "Synthesis", "Kanonfarma", "Medisorb", "Uralbiopharm" and others.
total aspirin scale of production in the world is every year thousands of tons.In 1950, aspirin was included in the Guinness Book of Records as the best-selling painkiller.In 1999, marking the centenary of aspirin, pharmaceutical company said the sale of a trillion tablets.In other words, for a hundred years, the average was issued for 10 billion aspirin tablets a year.
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